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Chickpea Allergy

In the past few years I have discovered two foods that I really enjoy but did not eat growing up.   One is hummus and the other is falafel. In fact, I learned how much I enjoy both foods eating at the Pita Jungle in Ahwatukee. Their falafel sandwich with pita bread and hummus on the side is wonderful!   If you asked me a few years ago what hummus and falafel was made of I would have ( I am ashamed to say) drawn a blank. You of course know that both are made from the chickpea.

Chickpea is one of the earliest known cultivated plants. It is packed with nutrients providing high quality protein, carbohydrates and fiber, and is used in traditional dishes around the world. Because it is high in protein and low in fat, it’s popularity as part of a healthy diet has been increasing in the US over the past 10 years.

I recently learned that chickpea has other traditional uses. In some areas of India, for example, infants are bathed in a lotion made from chickpea flour. In fact, I recently saw a 10 year old girl in our office with a history of severe rash and itching of the skin after she was bathed in chickpea flower lotion as an infant.   Her family has had her avoid anything containing chickpea since that time but was concerned about cross reactivity between the chickpea and other foods.

Chickpea is a legume and therefore closely related to other common legumes used as food such as peanut, soy bean, and green pea. Because of this allergenic cross reactivity, many patients who are allergic to one legume will have a positive allergy test (skin test or blood test) to other legumes although they may be able to eat those foods without any problems.   Usually, people who are truly allergic to a legume (have had symptoms when eating the food) will have a larger reaction on an allergy skin test or a higher value on an allergy blood test, but this is not a reliable way to distinguish who is truly allergic from those who have a positive test because of cross reactivity alone.

As an example, the child who had the severe allergic reaction to chickpea flour as an infant tested positive to green pea, soy, and peanut on her allergy tests although she has been eating these foods all her life without problems.  I explained that the child had an allergic sensitivity to many legumes but was only allergic to Chickpea.  This is not an easy concept to grasp.

On the other hand, someone who grew up in the US with a severe peanut allergy may want to be careful before trying unfamiliar dishes in parts of the world where legumes, such as the Chickpea, are used extensively.